Rockwall is a city in Rockwall County, Texas, United States, which is part of the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex. It is the county seat of Rockwall County. The population was 37,490 at the 2010 census. The name Rockwall is derived from a naturally jointed geological formation, which has the appearance of an artificial wall.
The association of Paleo-Indian artifacts with extinct Pleistocene mammal remains in various archeological sites within in the Texas Prairie-Savannah Region of eastern North Central Texas, including a site in Collin County and Clovis points recovered from the Brushy Creek Clovis Site in Hunt County, demonstrates that Rockwall region was occupied by prehistoric Native American cultures at least as far back as 13,500 to 13,000 years ago. More recently, the Rockwall region was occupied by Caddo Indians. Creek Indians moved to the area in the early 19th century.
In 1851, as the first Anglo-American settlers moved to the area, they started to dig wells. During the digging, they found large underground rock walls that were initially believed to be manmade. Later study of the wall-like features by geologists and archaeologists found them to be jointed, natural sandstone dikes that had intruded Cretaceous marl. In 2013, forensic geologist, Scott Wolter, on the television show America Unearthed, visited Rockwall to investigate the claims that the wall might have been manmade, and the conclusion of the episode was that the underground structure was natural and not man-made.
The town was established April 17, 1854 and named after these natural rock walls. While originally part of Kaufman County, in 1873, Rockwall County was formed with Rockwall being the county seat.
As of the census of 2000, there were 17,976 people, 6,605 households, and 5,158 families residing in the city. The population density was 806.9 people per square mile (311.5/km?). There were 7,089 housing units at an average density of 318.2 per square mile (122.8/km?). The racial makeup of the city was 91.35% White, 3.00% African American, 0.38% Native American, 1.39% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 2.57% from other races, and 1.28% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.44% of the population.
There were 6,605 households out of which 39.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.8% were married couples living together, 8.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 21.9% were non-families. 18.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.06.
In the city, the population was spread out with 27.5% under the age of 18, 6.9% from 18 to 24, 30.9% from 25 to 44, 25.1% from 45 to 64, and 9.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.1 males.